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A ‘transference’ that is not.

In the picture, my first school book, “Roselline”[1] in a very recent edition : a patient, enjoyed work when children can discover unpredictable details in a drawing, or text, or even a speech.

In 1910, during the 'Psychoanalysis Congress' in Nuremberg Sigmund Freud explained an affection as far as an analyst is concerned, when meeting and listening to the patient : Freud used the same term 'übertragung', but giving it an opposite direction.

‘Gegenübertragung’ was then the name of an item, the ‘counter-transference’, by means of which an analyst could stand side by side to his patient pathology being aware of it but without been catched : any neurosis infact, if also silent, is quite a a virus and not sensitive to medicines. Editing the Cases was to Freud an opportunity to point the profitability other than the conspicuous labour for the analyst, to work on his own life experience.

Jacques Lacan did not add much more, on that rough ground and staying at a distance : his formal defence of the ‘language’ even exposed it to an almost behavioral method, which can favour a mind-laziness in patients, also strengthening their inhibitions.

Just in a few words[2] Lacan says about an unpredictable and well accepted fall of pathological repetition, which previously was hiding an individual competence : that was also a professional experience in Freud.

However it is only in “Il pensiero di natura”[3] that the appointment between patient and analyst comes out from a mystical and obscure ‘transference’, accepting the elaboration itself between two conscious partners in well different positions : without the availability to one’s own competence, no work can proceed, neither analytical work and its rules[4].

Mainly, the availability to be recalled by competence makes unuseful ‘transference’ or ‘counter-transference’ as rejecting work, neither of the patient nor of the analyst.

Without this (technical ?) passage, a coming back to ‘transference’ is just a risky regress and obstacles indeed any individual cure.

                                                  Marina Bilotta Membretti, Cernusco sul Naviglio March 10, 2021.


[1] “Roselline. Per muovere i primi passi nel disegno”, Rosella Banzi Monti – Edizioni Larus Srl.

[2] “Il rovescio della psicoanalisi – Il seminario Libro XVII. Jacques Lacan”, by Jacques-Alain Miller – Antonio Di Ciaccia, Giulio Einaudi editore Spa (2001).

[3] “Il pensiero di natura. Dalla psicoanalisi al pensiero giuridico”, Giacomo B. Contri (1994 e 1998) SIC Edizioni.

[4] “La formazione dello psicoanalista”, Giacomo B. Contri in ‘THINK!’ 2014, May 10-11, 12, 15, 17-18, 19, 21.

Production districts.

Not only on darnel we humans live.

A welcoming garden is a favourable habitat where also a young resourceful oak tree can find to grow.




Ironically commenting the undoubted discoveries of ‘artificial intelligence’ which are based on the possibility to describe thinking thanks to a rational manipulation achievable by computer, the physicist Roger Penrose[1] could conclude : “…Often we say that it is our ‘conscious’ mind to behave in a ‘rational’ way we can understand, while it would be the unconscious mysterious indeed.”

The Freudian unconscious infact, still remains a prerogative for those who get the ‘rational’ as a process following, i.e. ‘secondary’, that ‘primary’ process, absolutely personal, and then not repeatable nor transferable, only ‘identifiable’ by the subject : thanks to these healthy flashes of our thinking the analytical work can find the links – otherwise darkened by our conscience – in which consists the essential competence in care, i.e. the solutions neglected by a subject. In short, this is the ‘knowledge’ and the ‘science’ tout court, without which no minimum or maximum discovery is made possible : however it is hampered in every way, even by the subject himself, or herself, who is always tempted to delegate someone of the ‘community’ in which he recognize himself, or herself.

Probably was this arbitrary passage from an individual rationality, able to connect actions and facts which seem not linked to third parties, to a rationality pre-judged as ‘collective’ – i.e. submitted to  cultural imperatives unduly neglected – which distanced the apprentice Karl Gustav Jung[2] from the scientific work made by Freud, up to appreciate those ‘new’ claims asserted by Jung to the academic communities which landed to the first ‘Game Theories’[3] and to the manipulation of the individual values, essential if a ‘game’ can work.

It is the manipulation itself of the individual values, absolutely ‘soft’ in otder the subject can accept but also necessary to the predictive Theories – then not so ‘scientific’ indeed – the imperative to which only barely the subject can escape, unless you collect the ‘individual science’ which Freud named ‘unconscious’ and that is translated infact with a ‘not yet aware’.

Einstein explained, when solving the photoelectric effect which earned him the Nobel Prize in 1921, that he could be thinking thanks to any “more or less clear images which can on request be combined and reproduced”[4]. Then, what parameters preceed that mythical ubiquitous ‘random behaviour’ in the algorithms ?

Daniel Kahneman[5], one of the greatest theorists of the ‘behaviourism’ asserts that only the ‘highly accessible impressions produced by the system ‘1’ rule our judgements and preferences…” : and infact has been proved that also the ‘logically isomorphic’[6] problems highlight paths absolutely individual in solving.

We owe to Alfred Marshall[7] and to his non-Marxian criticism of the crisis occurred at the Ford phase, the identification of an unexplored path : the human skills and a ‘local share capital’ which literally made look up again those people who were still bent – politicians, economists and researchers - over a destiny menaced by Marx and due to the separation between workers and production tools.

It was, and it is, an essential correction of the prevailing Culture : as increasingly large and concentrated companies shall be necessarily side by side with agglomerating geo-localized small and medium size companies, able to modulate conveniently their own production structure in order to support their own development and of others, not only for survival.

I would like to cite the economist Giacomo Becattini[8] and his agile essay “Dal distretto industriale allo sviluppo locale” reporting an important subtitle, ‘The course and defense of an idea’: “ …In the district you produce capital”[9], understood as “possession of the knowledges and social relationships with a production relief in any specifc historic context”, and you produce ‘widespread capital’, i.e. “an environment in which the know-how is widespread and the personal knowledge allows relationships of differentiated trust.”

In short, a production district “continuously opens up, here and there, to new possibilities of access to the entrepreneurial activity…”, and specifically that “business risk…” for which the investment – path of thinking which is first of all representative, and then individual – can give value to a very likely success, because it fastens to realities already experienced by the subject.

The economist Mariana Mazzucato[10] does recognize to the State an essential governance, more today than in the past, in assuming a bigger risk that is also a long-term investment, the one to favour an entrepreneurial innovation environment, not only a technological one : through, for example, the promising ‘banks for development’.

Let us hope therefore that – only as far as any State is concerned, the Governments representing it and the Bureaucracies which are responsible for the delicate task to make credible Laws and Decrees – they can take into due account the experienced reality of an ‘unequal risk’.



                                                                                         Marina Bilotta Membretti / Cernusco sul Naviglio May 16, 2020




[1] Sir Roger Penrose (1931), is mathematician and cosmologist, Cambridge University graduate and  emeritus professor at Oxford University : he received, together with Stephen Hawking (1942-2018), with whom also they were staying in debate on different hypothesis, the Wolf Prize in 1988 for Physics. Here I cite his book “La mente nuova dell’Imperatore”, Rizzoli Editore  1992, p.520.

[2] Karl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist, psychoanalist Freud’s student, inventor of that ‘analytical psychology’ that moved away him by Freud himself after publishing “Libido” in 1912.

J The theoretical reference remains “Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour”, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern – 1947 ‘Princeton University Press’.

[4] “Il valore della scienza”, Henri Poincarè / translat. into Italian 1992, Ed. Dedalo Bari : from “The Value of Science”, by Henri Poincarè 1913 ‘Science Press’.

[5] “Mappe di razionalità limitata : indagine sui giudizi e le scelte intuitivi”, by Daniel Kahneman in “Critica della ragione economica. Tre saggi : Kahneman, Mc Fadden, Smith” a cura di Motterlini – Piattelli – Palmarini, Ed. “il Saggiatore” 2012, p.126.

[6] “Calcoli morali”, Lazlo Mèro - Ed. Dedalo Bari 2012, p.286 : “two problems are said logically isomorphic when their formal logical structures are exactly alike”. Lazlo Mèro is Hungarian mathematician and psychologist, his essay “Calcoli morali” received in 1999 the prize as best science book in Germany.

[7] “Industria e carattere. Saggi sul pensiero di Alfred Marshall”, by Giacomo Becattini - “Le Monnier Università” 2010. Alfred Marshall (Londra 1842 – Cambridge 1924), has been one of the most influential economist of the last century : his “Principi di Economia” (1881) and “Industria e Commercio” (1919) are still a reference in Political Economics.  

[8] Giacomo Becattini (1927-2017) has been emeritus professor of Political Economy at Florence University, member of the ‘Accademie dei Lincei’, honorary member of ‘Trinity Hall’ (one of the oldest College of Cambridge), ‘honorary’ graduate at Urbino University and president of the ‘Società Italiana degli Economisti’ : found of Alfred Marshall and of the post-war development in Italy , he published essays also on the industrial district of Prato, and its honorary citizen too.

[9] “Dal distretto industriale allo sviluppo locale. Svolgimento e difesa di una idea”, by Giacomo Becattini – Ediz. Bollati Boringhieri 2000, p.53

[10] “Lo Stato innovatore. Sfatare il mito del pubblico contro il privato”, by Mariana Mazzucato 2013 – Editori Laterza Bari.

Reliability : an unpredictable reason in thinking.


<A ‘drop cap’ is the beginning consonant, or vocal of the first word in a written text and in the ancient medieval manuscripts the ‘drop cap’ was larger than the other letter, and opulently decorated>




I was reading a specialistic journal article (1) and happened thinking, with some pleasure, that ‘behaviourism’, leading the traditional but obsolete ‘Game theories’ is at last beginning to care of Political Economics decisions in one, of a group of Countries, as they are able to guide the public opinion and then the individual investment, saving and consumption decisions too.


Frailty in ‘behaviourism’, which - by means of the ‘Game theories’ - is un-ascribing any single man or woman and the whole society as far as economical decisions, from individual to aggregate, are concerned, is now evident in the present difficulty to forecast the behaviour of individuals who are more and more trained and competent.


The article I’m just reading points then a criticity in Central Banks of a Country, or group of Countries in orienting those behaviours which, even if collective, move from individual choices indeed on the base of available information : it seems convenient to emphasize here that, notwithstanding also the Central Bank of a Country, or Nation, is an Institute and then a body in favour of which different competences do work and cooperate in a specific required scope, it is the President of the Central Bank to be charged with a single political orientation – ‘monetary’ here – toward the whole national, and also supranational community. 


The authors, whom results in terms of mathematical formulations have been here named, consider a currency crisis in a Country, as mainly induced by the expectations of citizens - savers, consumers, investitors of a Country – able to read what the Central Bank, and its President, decides. 


A Nation then, where suddenly the stock of currency does shorten due to not enough profitable ‘domestic’ titles, can incur in more harmful consequencies when decide, by means of their Central Bank to open to a devaluation of their own currency.


The same outcome can obtain the decision to devaluate, when made by a Central Bank unable to afford economic and political costs connected to higher interest rates able, on another hand, to attract savers and investors.


In both these cases, what is crucial is the structure of national market not so simple indeed as able to ascribe specific and different values to the rate of interest, so that it is not easy to forecast the consequencies of a ‘technical’ devaluation. 


An individual competence about the fundamentals (2) of a Country can then vanify simplicistic and consequently abstract, because they don’t supply with reasons – both of concomitance and competition  of national and supranational conditions able to anticipate a currency crisis.   


Under conditions of competition, a minimum signal like a variation of national rate of interest can already contribute to increase conveniently the competence itself and maybe also a social and political sharing.


As a matter of facts, any individual thinking logically moves by reliability, thanks to which anyone can ascribe peacefully his own, or her own, satisfaction or, on the opposite, un-satisfaction. Nothing to do with any ingenuous and hazardous ‘behaviourism’ which dictates : ‘reaction action’.


Buti t is the freudian logic : a whole other world. 



Marina Bilotta Membretti - Cernusco sul Naviglio March 13, 2019



1'Self-fulfilling currency crises : the role of interest rates', di Christian Hellwig/Università Los Angeles-CA, Arijit Mukherji/Università del Minnesota, Aleh Tsyvinski/Università di Harvard, Cambridge-MA e 'National Bureau of Economic Research'. The article is the profit of the scientific debate in progress about the forecast of economic events in globalization, which for the first time saw participation of economists from Deutschland (Budapest, 'Society for Economic Dynamics', Annual meeting).

2 Fundamentals of a Nation are, for example : trade balance, aggregate public budget, investment growth rate.



An adult shall not separate what a child connects.

“The Case of Matilde”[1] in n. 1/2017 ‘Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane’, Franco Angeli Editore.




“My written intervention here[2] just offers a feasible path where – in the ‘Case of Matilde’ as introduced by Marta Angellini and Monica Ceccarelli – focuses on ‘the ridge between psychomotor skills analytically oriented and a psychomotor psychotherapy’ (n. 1/2017, p.143).

Referring to well-known cases treated by Freud can lead us to a re-reading maybe fruitful and also practicable nowadays.

It’s meaningful that Freud decided to publish only few cases among all those ones he was treating, maybe because the innovation which just some of them got to the rising psychoanalysis showed a fruitfulness which could be repeated time by time.

Freud himself was modifying by logic, and step by step, the original ‘setting’ to which, however, an unbeaten profit has to be ascribed in the analytical work by anyone recognizes himself, or herself, heir.

In the Case offered we hear that Matilde[3] introduces herself with a ‘not certain’ query : she offers her body ‘as she didn’t live in’ (n. 1/2017 p. 134) and that she was moving ‘round around the room with an uncertain pace and with a very unsteady balance’ (p. 133). 

We face a youngest patient who has difficulty in recognizing herself as the leading part of a care made up by her adults – parents, teachers as the Author says – whom however Matilde informed  about her uneasiness. Matilde is proving then a cooperating patient : better, she begins and undertakes a specific initiative that is ‘the play’, so replying her psychomotorist offer, but adding her specific work that is her analytical work indeed, asking her partner nothing else but replying her subject and her thought. A play which is ‘the play of Matilde herself’ – ‘a very rich play’ and ‘careful and punctual’ (p. 135) which, as the Author explained, ‘has urged her’.

Matilde easily gets her help, puts on the table and on the subject what she couldn’t start out of the therapy room and that induced her to escape any demand or offer by other partners. 

Marta Angellini has informed us that Matilde was already establishing an alliance with mom, but opposed by her grandmother who banalizes also humbling mom, not very able indeed to defende herself – ‘her pregnancy has been spangled with fits of jealousy by grandmother… and Matilde has been looking at furious arguments between mom and grandmother’ (p. 134). Better, I’d say ‘envy’ as pathogenic indeed, by grandmother towards mom, and mainly toward Matilde as the-subject-of-envy.

Nothing we know about the father, as a partner himself : however he introduces himself together with mom, then cooperating into a ‘parenting support path with Adriana Grotta’[4] (p. 134). It’s interesting that since the second year of therapy, around four years old, Matilde experiences her sister birth, as a goal of satisfaction for both parents.

Matilde happily utilizes that birth becoming herself partner of her father, without any evident conflict with mom –‘she is staging the marriage… also assuming often feminine roles… she has more tune… with mom’ (p. 137).

Finally is in the unknown play of the swimming-pool and of the threatening snails (third year of therapy), into which she also acknowledge the convenience of words, and in the following conclusive play of the acrobat (fourth year) that Matilde comes at her satisfaction, and any further offer of intervention is in excess from now on.

We can cite Max Graf, father of little Hans, as reported by Freud and confirming the overcoming of a pathology claimed by the child : ‘It is two days I notice that Hans disobeys to me, determined but not impudent, with some even cheerfulness.

Does it mean that he doesn’t fear me, the horse ?’ (Sigmund Freud, ‘Analysis of a fobia in a child of less than five years’/1909)…”[5]


                                                                                              Marina Bilotta Membretti / Cernusco sul Naviglio – October 18, 2020




[1] ‘The Case of Matilde’ has been introduced by the psychomotorist Marta Angellini, with a supervision of Monica Ceccarelli for the column ‘Clinical cases’ on n. 1/2017 of ‘Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane’/ Franco Angeli Editore, (pp. 133-142).

[2] The text is citing also my written intervention to the ‘Case of Matilde” and published on n. 3/2017 of ‘Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane’ (pp. 475-476).

[3] Matilde is less than three years old at the beginning of the Case.

[4] Adriana Grotta is psychologist and psychoanalyst : she is editing with fellows the column ‘Clinical cases’ into the magazine ‘Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane’, by Franco Angeli Editore.

[5] In the Case ‘The child Hans”, Sigmund Freud describes, through the analytical method, a phobìa and its recovery in a child of less than five years,.

“Well done…!”

Fresh news.

Original painting by Stefano Frassetto[1].





“…’Do you know, doctor, that today is the last time I’m here ?’

She admits that nothing angers her more than hearing someone who believes that the scene on the lake is just a figment of her own imagination.

Dora had been listening to me without contradicting, as she used to do. She seemed moved; in the most amiable tone she took leave of me with her warmest wishes for a happy new year and… she never came back.

Her father, who came and visit me some more time, was assuring she would return as she clearly wished to continue the treatment. But her father was never quite sincere. As long as he had hoped my chatter could persuade Dora that between he and Mrs. K.  there wasn’t anything else than a good friendship, he had been in favour of the treatment; but when he had seen that among my intentions this purpose did not figure, his interest in the cure was diminished a lot. I did know that Dora would not come back…

Could have I kept the girl if I had supported a part ? If I exaggerated the value I attached to her return ? I don’t know.

…Despite all the theoretical interest, all the professional wish to assist a patient, I tell myself that any psychic influence must have limits and I respect as such also the patient’s will and perspicacity.

…The psychoanalytic cure doesn’t set up a traslation, it only reveals that, as well as all the hidden  psychic processes… In psychoanalysis – due to the different factors on which is based – all the impulses, also the hostile ones, are awakened and utilized by making them conscious, and thereby the traslation itself is continuously undone…

Only fifteen months after the end of the cure and the drafting of my report I could be informed about the state of health of Dora and therefore about the result of the cure. April first… she came to me in order to complete her story and to ask again for my help; but it was enough for me to look at her face to understand that her request was not to take serious…

Years passed since that visit. Dora got married, and precisely – if all the clues don’t deceive me – with the young man about whom she was speaking in those associations at the beginning of the analysis of the second dream… so this second dream was then announcing that she would break away from her father, returning to life.”[2]


                                          Marina Bilotta Membretti / Cernusco sul Naviglio - July 11, 2020


[1] Stefano Frassetto is born in Turin in 1968. After his degree in Architecture at ‘Politecnico’ he begun as graphic novelist for local magazines. In the ‘90s he edited in France, on ‘Le Réverbère’ and on ‘Libération’ : then he created ‘Ippo’ for ‘Il Giornalino’ and then the stripe ‘35MQ’ for the swiss magazine ‘20 Minuti’. In 2000 he came into ‘La Stampa’ newspaper as portraitist for cultural page and the insert ‘Tuttolibri’, then for the weekly ‘Origami’. Today he works also for the swiss magazine ‘Le Temps’.

[2] “Il Caso di Dora. Frammento di un’analisi d’isteria”, by Sigmund Freud (1901) ‘Edizione integrale di riferimento’ – Bollati Boringhieri 2014, Cited : pp.179-196.

Capital in XXI century.

‘Speed Book Date‘, edited by Alessandra Pagani.

Padoa - February 24, 2018 : I've told about ‘Il capitale nel XXI secolo’, by Thomas Piketty - Ed. du Seuil 2013.





"Thomas Piketty is 46, lives in Paris with his wife Julia and their three daughters. He's professor at the 'Ecole des hautes etudes en sciences sociales' and at the 'Ecole d'Economie de Paris'. With this essay he won in 2013 the Prix 'Yrjo Jahnsson' awarded by the 'European Economic Association'. 

It is a work ambitious indeed, however it is original and strict by which Piketty begins an analysis still unpublished, because it collected Balance sheets from 20 Countries in the world, with a very actual issue : what favours the speculation, leading to social inequalities and injustice, other than to capital investments ?

That made me curious, because his work pointed out an important connection between the good economics and the individual psyche, continuously tempted by a consumer pleasure, or by an immediate obtaining without any work rather than  investing one's own talents for a better profit. 

Piketty said that a speculative shifting has first of all be dealt with in any Nation, by means of a shared Culture, and in the same time he proposed a progressive taxation on capital – but the politics has not so much been aimed by Governments, because that would encourage a capital migration to Countries where instead the speculation is awarded.

I think it would be useful to be able to define the composition of the capital, as Piketty himself  does hope and his work goes on with further allied in further Countries, because when the percentage of income doesn't overcome the capital invested in productive activities, maybe a progressive taxation on the capital will not have depressing effects.“




                               Marina Bilotta Membretti / Cernusco sul Naviglio – February 27, 2018